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Art & Craft Group

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Karen Timofeev
Karen Timofeev

Peaches Are Not The Only Fruit [v0.05]

Between 2003 and 2004, audits were conducted in person at all stores that were identified by the 2000 business census as either supermarkets or major-chain grocery stores and had addresses that were geographically located within the study area (N = 81). Each store was audited by two research staff: one observer (who visually noted all the items) and one recorder (who recorded the items on a standard data sheet). Each auditor participated in a half-day training session and followed an auditor for another half day. Using the 78-item fruits and vegetable checklist, the auditor recorded whether each store carried that fruit or vegetable and whether it was available fresh, frozen, or canned. Similarly, each auditor looked for all available meat, poultry, and dairy options. The auditors checked thechecklist for each item the supermarket carried; they did not count the number of each item the store had. (For example, they noted whether there were peaches but not the number of peaches.) This process was chosen because variations in the actual number of peaches (or other items) might reflect purchasing and stocking patterns within the store rather than the availability of an item.

Peaches Are Not the Only Fruit [v0.05]

Prunus subgenus Amygdalus comprises two sections, Amygdalus and Persica, in which domesticated almond and peach are classified, respectively. The common ancestor of this subgenus likely bears a dry, splitting mesocarp, while the transition to fleshy and palatable mesocarp in some Persica section species (wild P. mira and P. kansusensis, and P. persica) (Supplementary Table 1) was presumably derived from selection and domestication in China6,7. Great morphological variation in fruit traits like fruit size, texture, taste, and skin color among cultivated peach and its wild relatives offers a natural diversity panel that presents an opportunity to explore the speciation and domestication history of peach, and to interpret the emergence and evolution of fruit edibility in perennial fruit crops more generally. Previous genome studies with many cultivated peaches but limited number of wild relative peaches have identified genomic regions that have undergone artificial selection, which have impacted the diversification of several phenotypes in peach8,9. However, as there is only limited genomic data available for investigating the ancient speciation or early domestication history of peach, little is known about the evolution of fruit traits of modern peaches.

This study examined the evolutionary history of fruit edibility in peach by combining genomic analyses with paleo-geographic data and archeological evidence. Our results suggest that topographical changes caused by the uplifts of Tibetan plateau had driven the diversification of several peach species during the Pliocene. These uplifts made southwest China a favorable region for the emergence of fruit edibility in peach species and the origin of P. persica. It has been suggested that humid environments offer desirable conditions for the emergence of fleshy mesocarps7. We here present evidence supporting that humid southwest China provided not only the glacial refugia for peach species, but also fostered enhanced frugivore-plant interactions for the emergence of fleshy fruit. Our study also provides molecular evidence to support the previously proposed idea that frugivore-mediated selection can drive the evolution of fruit traits30.

O, to take what we love inside,to carry within us an orchard, to eatnot only the skin, but the shade,not only the sugar, but the days, to holdthe fruit in our hands, adore it, then bite intothe round jubilance of peach.

All of our bare root fruit trees will come pruned so that the reduced root mass is balanced with the canopy to maximize grower success. Our bare root fruit trees are headed back to fit in the 60" tall box that they will ship in. Branches are seldom removed during this process unless dead or damaged and are only reduced to fit the tree in the box so that the grower can decide what branches to keep or remove. This is done in a way that will allow the home grower to continue to grow the tree as a central leader or prune the tree to an open center.

Weight gain can happen quickly on an ultra-processed diet. In a tightly controlled National Institutes of Health study, people checked into a medical center for a month, and could eat only foods provided by researchers. They consumed about 500 more calories per day on an ultra-processed food diet than on a diet based on whole foods such as fruits, vegetables, whole grains, simply-prepared chicken and other proteins. Interestingly, people reported enjoying both diets about equally. 041b061a72


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