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Daniel Grigoriev
Daniel Grigoriev

The Early Identification Of Dyslexia - Core

Although there are many negative outcomes associated with dyslexia, particularly salient to the pediatrician is the association between dyslexia and poor mental health.12,13 Children with dyslexia are more likely to suffer from generalized anxiety14,15 and also exhibit higher rates of depression.14,16 Because screening for dyslexia is not routinely performed, the direction of causation between dyslexia and comorbid mood disorders in each case is unclear, and this uncertainty can preclude effective early treatment. A mood disorder may be identified in a child with unidentified comorbid dyslexia when it is the dyslexia that is antecedent and causative, obscuring the primary target for intervention.

The early identification of dyslexia - Core

Despite increasing collaboration among educators, physicians, neuroscientists, speech and language pathologists (SLPs), and psychologists, dyslexia is often overlooked in the field of general pediatrics, perhaps because the diagnostic label of dyslexia is not often used in practice, having been replaced largely by education language of strengths and weaknesses. The clinical implications of a reluctance to use dyslexia as a diagnostic label include children failing to receive an adequate response to early risk signs, appropriate interventions in school, and mental health support.

Although neuroimaging research has been invaluable in establishing the biological basis of dyslexia and reading impairments, neuroimaging technology (eg, brain MRI) does not have the ability to screen or diagnose dyslexia on an individual level, nor is it likely that this will be the case in the future. At this point, neuroimaging is not able to clearly disentangle differential neurobiological effects of dyslexia versus other reading impairments.39,56 For these reasons and many others, cognitive-behavioral strategies are much more useful in screening.

The risk of a false-positive result is present with any screening program, and, in the case of dyslexia screening, the risk is tantamount to further evaluation, monitoring, and educational supports. Although through these processes, demands are placed on the child and represent cost and effort on the part of practitioners, the burden of failing to identify these children early is ultimately greater than the burden of providing supplemental resources to a child needlessly. As discussed, although not all children who struggle with reading will meet the criteria for a dyslexia diagnosis, most children who struggle with reading will benefit from interventions designed to address dyslexia.

Watch this on-demand webinar for more information about the importance of early screening for dyslexia. Also learn strategies for coping with dyslexia, learning strategies for dyslexic students and teaching strategies for students with dyslexia. Click here to watch the full webinar about the importance of early screening for dyslexia.

Early screening for dyslexia is so important that many states have passed, or are in the process of passing, legislation that makes it a requirement in public districts and schools. In addition to discussing the reasons why early identification of dyslexia is important, this webinar walks through some of the specific attributes required for effective dyslexia screening. These attributes include: phoneme awareness tasks, direct measures of decoding and word recognition, and timed tests for letter naming or letter-sound associations and oral reading fluency.

Dyslexia is not a life sentence for low performance. When identified with an early dyslexia screening test, and when students has access to educators who understand their disability and know what needs to be done to support their learning, they have the ability to be successful students.

In addition, dyslexia runs in families; parents with dyslexia are very likely to have children with dyslexia. For some people, their dyslexia is identified early in their lives, but for others, their dyslexia goes unidentified until they get older.

The impact that dyslexia has is different for each person and depends on the severity of the condition and the effectiveness of instruction or remediation. The core difficulty is with word recognition and reading fluency, spelling, and writing. Some individuals with dyslexia manage to learn early reading and spelling tasks, especially with excellent instruction, but later experience their most debilitating problems when more complex language skills are required, such as grammar, understanding textbook material, and writing essays.

People with dyslexia can also have problems with spoken language, even after they have been exposed to good language models in their homes and good language instruction in school. They may find it difficult to express themselves clearly, or to fully comprehend what others mean when they speak. Such language problems are often difficult to recognize, but they can lead to major problems in school, in the workplace, and in relating to other people. The effects of dyslexia reach well beyond the classroom.

Dyslexia is a lifelong condition. With proper help, many people with dyslexia can learn to read and write well. Early identification and treatment is the key to helping individuals with dyslexia achieve in school and in life. Most people with dyslexia need help from a teacher, tutor, or therapist specially trained in using a multisensory, structured language approach. It is important for these individuals to be taught by a systematic and explicit method that involves several senses (hearing, seeing, touching) at the same time. Many individuals with dyslexia need one-on-one help so that they can move forward at their own pace. In addition, students with dyslexia often need a great deal of structured practice and immediate, corrective feedback to develop automatic word recognition skills. For students with dyslexia, it is helpful if their outside academic therapists work closely with classroom teachers.

Intervention is necessary when children do not make adequate progress with phonics and decoding skills even after receiving strong core instruction with opportunities to practice the phonics skills and decoding strategies they have been taught. It is important to determine whether a difficulty with phonics and decoding is stemming from an underlying problem with phonological skills before proceeding with intervention. Classroom-based intervention research has shown that effective interventions can lead nearly all children to develop proficient phonics and decoding (Gersten et al, 2017 , Denton, 2012).

This book, the result of intensive studies at the University of Queensland in Australia, is the first to deliver definitive and specific information regarding the presentation, identification, remediation and outcomes (in social, educational and vocational terms) of phonological core deficit (PCD)- based literacy difficulties in adolescents and secondary school students.

Though there's no cure for dyslexia, early assessment and intervention result in the best outcome. Sometimes dyslexia goes undiagnosed for years and isn't recognized until adulthood, but it's never too late to seek help.

Signs of dyslexia can be difficult to recognize before your child enters school, but some early clues may indicate a problem. Once your child reaches school age, your child's teacher may be the first to notice a problem. Severity varies, but the condition often becomes apparent as a child starts learning to read.

Screening is an important part of systems for early identification of students who are at risk for poor education outcomes. Screening is an important step in providing an evidence-based intervention to learners who need additional educational supports.

The Alaska Department of Education & Early Development announced it has selected mCLASS from Amplify as the statewide literacy screener that will help with the early identification of students with reading deficiencies in order to provide specific support so that all students will be able to read at grade level by the end of third grade.

Statewide screening and support are components of the Alaska Reads Act. The screening tool will be administered three times each school year. If a student exhibits a reading deficiency, the school district must offer intensive reading intervention services in addition to the core reading instruction that is provided to all students in a classroom. With early identification of reading deficiencies and evidence-based intervention methods, teachers and families can strategically and confidently help a student improve their reading skills.

The Alabama Literacy Act (ALA) established a Literacy Task Force (LTF). The IDA-AL Branch was asked to appoint three Certified Academic Language Therapists to the LTF. Early identification and intervention for K-3 students who have literacy challenges including dyslexia is a primary purpose of the ALA. The LTF has been completing some very heavy lifting helping to ensure that we have high quality core instruction, assessment systems, and intervention tools in place in Alabama schools.

Designing tests sensitive to the problem of audiovisual integration could determine the presence of a disorder that often goes undetected during the early years of elementary education since many children with dyslexia are considered, initially, as simply being on the lower end of a normal range of reading levels.

The primary benefit of universal screening for dyslexia is to prevent the progression of reading problems associated with an unidentified reading disability. Evidence-based reading intervention provided in the early years can better prepare the child to confront reading at the word, sentence, and passage level. Screening can be administered as early as preschool and should check for developmental skills in the essential areas of reading including phonological awareness, letter-sound association, blending, word recognition fluency, word identification, vocabulary, oral reading fluency, and comprehension. 041b061a72


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