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Mason Perez
Mason Perez

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The Ukrainian alphabet (Ukrainian: абе́тка, áзбука or алфа́ві́т, romanized: abetka, azbuka .mw-parser-output .noitalicfont-style:normalor alfavit) is the set of letters used to write Ukrainian, which is the official language of Ukraine. It is one of several national variations of the Cyrillic script. It comes from the Cyrillic script, which was devised in the 9th century for the first Slavic literary language, called Old Slavonic. Since the 10th century, it became used in the Kyivan Rus' for Old East Slavic, from which the Belarusian, Russian, Rusyn, and Ukrainian alphabets later evolved. The modern Ukrainian alphabet has 33 letters in total: 20 consonants, 2 semivowels, 10 vowels and 1 palatalization sign. Sometimes the apostrophe (') is also included, which has a phonetic meaning and is a mandatory sign in writing, but is not considered as a letter and is not included in the alphabet.




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Ukrainian text is sometimes romanised (written in the Latin alphabet) for non-Cyrillic readers or transcription systems. There are several common methods for romanizing Ukrainian including the international Cyrillic-to-Latin transcription standard ISO 9. There have also been several historical proposals for a native Ukrainian Latin alphabet, but none have caught on.


Compared to other Cyrillic alphabets, the modern[3] Ukrainian alphabet is most similar to those of the other East Slavic languages: Belarusian, Russian, and Rusyn. It has retained the two early Cyrillic letters і (i) and izhe (и) to represent related sounds /i/ and /ɪ/ as well as the two historical forms e (е) and ye (є). Its unique letters are the following:


Various reforms of the alphabet by scholars of Church Slavonic, Ruthenian, and Russian languages caused the written and spoken word to diverge by varying amounts. Etymological rules from Greek and South Slavic languages made the orthography imprecise and difficult to master.


Meletii Smotrytskyi's Slavonic Grammar of 1619 was very influential on the use of Church Slavonic, and codified the use of the letters Я (ya), Е (e), and Ґ (g). Various Russian alphabet reforms were influential as well, especially Peter the Great's Civil Script of 1708 (the Grazhdanka). It created a new alphabet specifically for non-religious use, and adopted Latin-influenced letterforms for type. The Civil Script eliminated some archaic letters (Ѯ, Ѱ, Ѡ, Ѧ), but reinforced an etymological basis for the alphabet, influencing Mykhaylo Maksymovych's nineteenth-century Galician Maksymovychivka script for Ukrainian, and its descendant, the Pankevychivka, which is still in use, in a slightly modified form, for the Rusyn language in Carpathian Ruthenia.


In reaction to the hard-to-learn etymological alphabets, several reforms attempted to introduce a phonemic Ukrainian orthography during the nineteenth century, based on the example of Vuk Karadžić's Serbian Cyrillic. These included Panteleimon Kulish's Kulishivka alphabet used in his 1857 Notes on Southern Rus' and Hramatka, the Drahomanivka alphabet promoted in the 1870s by Mykhailo Drahomanov, and Yevhen Zhelekhivskyi's Zhelekhivka alphabet from 1886, which standardized the letters ї (yi) and ґ (g).


In Dnieper Ukraine, proposed reforms suffered from periodic bans of publication and performance in the Ukrainian language. One such decree was the notorious 1876 Ems Ukaz, which banned the Kulishivka and imposed a Russian orthography until 1905 (called the Yaryzhka, after the Russian letter yery ы). The Kulishivka was adopted by Ukrainian publications, only to be banned again from 1914 until after the February Revolution of 1917.


The Zhelekhivka became official in Galicia in 1893, and was adopted by many eastern Ukrainian publications after the Revolution. The People's Republic of Ukraine adopted official Ukrainian orthographies in 1918 and 1919, and Ukrainian publication increased, and then flourished under Skoropadsky's Hetmanate. Under the Bolshevik government of Ukraine, Ukrainian orthographies were confirmed in 1920 and 1921.


In 1925, the Ukrainian SSR created a Commission for the Regulation of Orthography. During the period of Ukrainization in Soviet Ukraine, the 1927 International Orthographic Conference was convened in Kharkiv, from May 26 to June 6. At the conference, a standardized Ukrainian orthography and method for transliterating foreign words were established, a compromise between Galician and Soviet proposals, called the Ukrainian orthography of 1928, or Skrypnykivka, after Ukrainian Commissar of Education Mykola Skrypnyk. It was officially recognized by the Council of People's Commissars in 1928, and by the Lviv Shevchenko Scientific Society in 1929, and adopted by the Ukrainian diaspora. The Skrypnykivka was the first universally adopted native Ukrainian orthography.


During the period of Perestroika in the USSR, a new Ukrainian Orthographic Commission was created in 1986. A revised orthography was published in 1991, reintroducing the letter ge ґ. It also revised the alphabetical order, moving the soft sign ь from the end of the alphabet, to a position before the letter ю, which helps sort Ukrainian text together with Belarusian (following a proposal by L. M. Ivanenko of the Glushkov Institute of Cybernetics).


On 21 May 2019, the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine approved a new version of the orthography prepared by the Ukrainian National Commission on Spelling. The new edition brought to life some features of orthography in 1928, which were part of the Ukrainian orthographic tradition. At the same time, the commission was guided by the understanding that the language practice of Ukrainians in the second half of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st century has already become part of the Ukrainian orthographic tradition.[4]


Elements in HTML and XML would normally have the Ukrainian language indicated using the IETF language tag uk (lang="uk" in HTML and xml:lang="uk" in XML). Although indicating the writing system is normally not necessary, this can be accomplished by adding a script subtag, for example to distinguish Cyrillic Ukrainian text (uk-Cyrl) from romanized Ukrainian (uk-Latn).


The console is an operating system window where users interact with the operating system or with a text-based console application by entering text input through the computer keyboard, and by reading text output from the computer terminal. For example, in the Windows operating system, the console is called the Command Prompt window and accepts MS-DOS commands. The Console class provides basic support for applications that read characters from, and write characters to, the console.


When a console application starts, the operating system automatically associates three I/O streams with the console: standard input stream, standard output stream, and standard error output stream. Your application can read user input from the standard input stream; write normal data to the standard output stream; and write error data to the standard error output stream. These streams are presented to your application as the values of the Console.In, Console.Out, and Console.Error properties.


By default, the value of the In property is a System.IO.TextReader object that represents the keyboard, and the values of the Out and Error properties are System.IO.TextWriter objects that represent a console window. However, you can set these properties to streams that do not represent the console window or keyboard; for example, you can set these properties to streams that represent files. To redirect the standard input, standard output, or standard error stream, call the Console.SetIn, Console.SetOut, or Console.SetError method, respectively. I/O operations that use these streams are synchronized, which means that multiple threads can read from, or write to, the streams. This means that methods that are ordinarily asynchronous, such as TextReader.ReadLineAsync, execute synchronously if the object represents a console stream.


Do not use the Console class to display output in unattended applications, such as server applications. Calls to methods such as Console.Write and Console.WriteLine have no effect in GUI applications.


Console class members that work normally when the underlying stream is directed to a console might throw an exception if the stream is redirected, for example, to a file. Program your application to catch System.IO.IOException exceptions if you redirect a standard stream. You can also use the IsOutputRedirected, IsInputRedirected, and IsErrorRedirected properties to determine whether a standard stream is redirected before performing an operation that throws an System.IO.IOException exception.


It is sometimes useful to explicitly call the members of the stream objects represented by the In, Out, and Error properties. For example, by default, the Console.ReadLine method reads input from the standard input stream. Similarly, the Console.WriteLine method writes data to the standard output stream, and the data is followed by the default line termination string, which can be found at Environment.NewLine. However, the Console class does not provide a corresponding method to write data to the standard error output stream, or a property to change the line termination string for data written to that stream.


You can solve this problem by setting the TextWriter.NewLine property of the Out or Error property to another line termination string. For example, the following C# statement sets the line termination string for the standard error output stream to two carriage return and line feed sequences:


Two closely related features of the console are the screen buffer and the console window. Text is actually read from or written to streams owned by the console, but appear to be read from or written to an area owned by the console called the screen buffer. The screen buffer is an attribute of the console, and is organized as a rectangular grid of rows and columns where each grid intersection, or character cell, can contain a character. Each character has its own foreground color, and each character cell has its own background color. 041b061a72


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