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Isaac Richardson
Isaac Richardson

Introduction To Biotechnology And Genetic Engin...

genetic engineering: alteration of the genetic makeup of an organism using the molecular methods of biotechnologygenetically modified organism (GMO): an organism whose genome has been artificially changed

introduction to biotechnology and genetic engin...


Pharmaceutical biotechnology has a long tradition and is rooted in the last century, first exemplified by penicillin and streptomycin as low molecular weight biosynthetic compounds. Today, pharmaceutical biotechnology still has its fundamentals in fermentation and bioprocessing, but the paradigmatic change affected by biotechnology and pharmaceutical sciences has led to an updated definition. The biotechnology revolution redrew the research, development, production and even marketing processes of drugs. Powerful new instruments and biotechnology related scientific disciplines (genomics, proteomics) make it possible to examine and exploit the behavior of proteins and molecules. Recombinant DNA (rDNA) technologies (genetic, protein, and metabolic engineering) allow the production of a wide range of peptides, proteins, and biochemicals from naturally nonproducing cells. This technology, now approximately 25 years old, is becoming one of the most important technologies developed in the 20(th) century. Pharmaceutical products and industrial enzymes were the first biotech products on the world market made by means of rDNA. Despite important advances regarding rDNA applications in mammalian cells, yeasts still represent attractive hosts for the production of heterologous proteins. In this review we describe these processes.

Trait introduction is discussed to provide information about the plant cell culture and selection/regeneration technique used to produce the genetically engineered plant. Confirmatory data show what part of the vector DNA is actually incorporated into the plant genome. This consists of southern blot analysis for the trait's gene and also gives information about the possibility of multiple copies of the gene(s) being incorporated. A southern blot analysis is a DNA detection assay based on the high binding affinity of the two complimentary strands of DNA for each other. Using a radioactive or other labeled form of one of the complimentary strands and restriction endonuclease enzymes which cut the DNA at specific locations, information about the status and insertion of the introduced traits in the transformed plant can be surmised.

The development of a new strain of crop is an example of agricultural biotechnology: a range of tools that include both traditional breeding techniques and more modern lab-based methods. Traditional methods date back thousands of years, whereas biotechnology uses the tools of genetic engineering developed over the last few decades. Genetic engineering is the name for the methods that scientists use to introduce new traits to an organism. This process results in genetically modified organisms, or GMO. For example, plants may be genetically engineered to produce characteristics to enhance the growth or nutritional profile of food crops. GMO that are crop species are commonly called genetically engineered crops, or GE crops for short

Techniques central to "modern" biotechnology include cell fusion and genetic engineering. Traditional techniques such as selective crossbreeding are also commonly employed in biotechnology, much the same way as they have been for millennia. Recently, genetic engineering has seen expanding use in biotechnology due to advances in knowledge and technology. Many staple foodstuffs, for example, are now genetically modified.

Before listing some of the commonly used genetic engineering techniques to modify plant and animal species, exploring the non-genetic engineering methods commonly employed in biotechnology is worthwhile. While traditional breeding techniques are becoming supplanted by genetic modification, there are still plenty of non-genetic methods of engineering organisms in the food and agriculture industry.

As scientists continue to reveal more about the genetic code, the opportunities for the fields of biotechnology and genetic engineering are promising. However, there are ethical and safety concerns about the long-term effects of genetic engineering, especially as it is a young discipline. However, the field's possibilities for several key industries in the 21st century are vast.

In the Introduction to Biotechnology Sequence, students read about the genetic engineering process and learn how to use basic biotechnology lab tools. By completing this sequence, students learn that specific tools are used in recombinant DNA techniques.

"Modern biotechnology" is used to distinguish newer applications of biotechnology, such as genetic engineering and cell fusion from more conventional methods such as breeding, or fermentation.

Some international agreements like the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety use terms like "living modified organism" (LMO). The Protocol defines a LMO as a microorganism, plant, or animal that has been derived through modern biotechnology-using techniques such as recombinant DNA-that is capable of transferring or replicating its genetic material (DNA, or "deoxyribonucleic acid", is the genetic material found in all living organisms).

The Department of Cell and Molecular Biology at the University of Rhode Island offers a Bachelor of Science (B.S.) degree in Biotechnology. Biotechnology is commonly defined as the use of biological principles for the betterment of mankind. Examples of this technology include biopharmaceuticals produced by live cells, enhanced crop yields due to genetic engineering of seeds and medical devices that address a variety of human issues. A BS in Biotechnology will prepare students for professional careers in the rapidly growing biotechnology and biomedical industries. Students will be qualified to work in areas such as technical support, manufacturing and research. The major includes a 12 credit internship at a biotechnology company or organization. A few key courses are offered only at the Providence Campus where students learn in specialized biotechnology laboratories. All other courses are offered on the Kingston Campus with some courses on both campuses.

Joshua Lederberg's path-breaking research into the molecular mechanisms of gene action made him one of the founders of molecular biology in the 1940s and 1950s. A prodigy who received the Nobel Prize at age 33, he helped lay the groundwork for genetic engineering, modern biotechnology, and genetic approaches to medicine. Interdisciplinary in his scientific interests and methods, Lederberg became a pioneer of space biology, and was instrumental in introducing computers and artificial intelligence into laboratory research and biomedical communication. As a postwar liberal with an abiding faith in the ability of government to improve society, secure peace, and protect the environment with the advice of scientific experts, Lederberg has served for over forty years on advisory commissions on science and health policy, space exploration, national security, and arms control.

Bio 061 Biology of Aging.An introduction to concepts relevant to the biology of aging. Focus on molecular, cellular, and physiological changes that occur during the aging process in humans and other organisms. Major topics include theories of aging, genetic regulation of longevity in model systems, and therapeutic modulation of the aging process. (Group A)Prerequisites: BIO 13 and BIO 14 or their equivalent, or consent. Typically Offered: Spring

While technology generally aims to create tools to empower man, biotechnology aims to change man himself, to better fit him to the world. Biotechnology is the application of advances made in the biological sciences, especially involving the science of genetics and its application. Biotechnology has helped improve food quality, quantity and processing. It also has applications in manufacturing, where simple cells and proteins can be manipulated to produce chemicals.

The consequences of man's growing power over human genetics are enormous, and they become ever more immediate each day. Many observers have suggested that just as the late 20th century has been the age of computer technology, so the early 21st century will be the age of biotechnology. But how can we be sure that this new power will be used correctly?

How much control should individuals be allowed to exercise over the genetic makeup of their children? How much do we want to know about our own genetic tendencies or dispositions? How will society be affected if we come close to actually answering the age-old nature-versus-nurture question? What are the implications of human cloning? How can we ensure that the sanctity of human life is safeguarded in an age when genetic manipulation and scientific eugenics are possible? Can society exercise some control over the uses of biotechnology, or has the genetic genie forever escaped its bottle?

The biology major develops fundamental knowledge of animals, plants and microorganisms. The four specializations offered by the College of Agricultural and Life Sciences are tailored to meet the needs of preprofessional students, those preparing for graduate studies in biology or specialized areas such as bioinformatics, ecology, genetics and molecular biology and those seeking a career in biotechnology, education, natural resource management and environmental or biotechnology law.

Increasingly, biotechnology is also being applied to problems in the environment and in energy. Genetically engineered micro-organisms and plants clean up toxic wastes from industrial production and oil spills. Genetic methods are used to identify particular populations of endangered species. Minute traces of animal or plant remains are used to track and convict poachers. Genetic analysis helps botanical gardens, zoos, and game farms improve their breeding programs by determining the genetic diversity of various plant and animal populations. Microbes are making it economically feasible to produce ethanol for running machinery from corn stover, wheat straw, sugar cane waste and other agricultural crop residues. 041b061a72


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