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Kai Kelly
Kai Kelly

Where To Buy Melamix LINK


Retinoids are naturally existing elements acquired through diet. Vitamin A cannot be synthetised by the body, and so this must be supplemented in the form of retinyl esters from animal sources (e.g. liver, eggs), and beta-carotene from plants (e.g. carrots, spinach)3. Once ingested, they are absorbed through the small intestine and converted into retinol. Retinol is then delivered by the bloodstream to target cells, where it is either stored as a retinol ester (palmitate, propionate, and acetate) or oxidised to intracellular retinoic acid through a theorised two-step process, with retinaldehyde serving as the intermediary3. Retinoic acid represents 50% of the active cellular form, with its metabolites (4-hydroxy-retinoic acid), stereoisomers 9-cis-retinoic acid (alitretinoin), and 13-cis-retinoic acid (isotretinoin) making up the difference24.




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The parallel rise in interest for non-prescription retinoids within the scientific community and skincare industry is palpable. However, their clinical value was for many years limited, due to obstacles in product formulation. Using retinol as an example, Kligman was a forerunner in identifying and advocating its use, but creating an acceptable agent was seemingly impossible. It was irritating in therapeutic doses, easily deactivated, malodorous, and delivery to deeper cutaneous structures where it was most needed remained inadequate25. Current retinol formulations using novel chemical engineering and biodelivery systems are able to circumvent such hurdles to garner the benefits. 041b061a72


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