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Download Khaki Shadows by K.M. Arif PDF Free 57: A Book Review



- Why is this book important and relevant? - What are the main themes and arguments of the book? H2: Down Memory Lane - How did Pakistan emerge as a nation-state in 1947? - What were the challenges and opportunities faced by the new country? - How did the army play a role in shaping Pakistan's destiny? H2: Follies in War - How did Pakistan engage in wars with India in 1948, 1965, and 1971? - What were the causes and consequences of these wars? - How did the army perform and what were its mistakes? H2: Debacle at Dhaka - How did Pakistan lose its eastern wing in 1971? - What were the political, economic, and social factors that led to the separation of Bangladesh? - How did the army fail to prevent or resolve the crisis? H2: The Military Under Zia - How did General Zia-ul-Haq come to power in 1977? - What were his policies and objectives? - How did he transform Pakistan's society, economy, and foreign relations? H2: The Mohajir Qaumi Movement - Who are the Mohajirs and what are their grievances? - How did they form a political party and a movement in urban Sindh? - How did the army deal with them and what were the implications? H2: Exercise Brass Tacks - What was Exercise Brass Tacks and why was it conducted in 1986-87? - How did it affect Pakistan's relations with India and the Soviet Union? - How did it expose the rifts within the army and the civil-military relations? H2: The Role of the Judiciary - What is the role and function of the judiciary in Pakistan? - How did it interact with the army and the civilian governments? - How did it uphold or undermine the rule of law and democracy? H2: The Lure of Power - How did Benazir Bhutto and Nawaz Sharif come to power in the 1990s? - What were their achievements and failures? - How did they clash with the army and each other? H2: Glimpses - Foreign Relations - How did Pakistan manage its foreign relations with key countries and regions? - What were the opportunities and challenges faced by Pakistan in its external affairs? - How did the army influence or shape Pakistan's foreign policy? H2: Adieu - How did K.M. Arif retire from the army in 1987? - What were his reflections and regrets on his career and service? - How did he view Pakistan's future prospects and challenges? H2: Epilogue - How did Pakistan change since the publication of Khaki Shadows in 2001? - What were the major developments and events that affected Pakistan's politics and security? - How did K.M. Arif pass away in 2018 and what was his legacy? H2: Conclusion - What are the main takeaways and lessons from Khaki Shadows? - How does this book contribute to our understanding of Pakistan's history and current situation? - What are some recommendations for further reading on this topic? H2: FAQs - Where can I find Khaki Shadows by K.M. Arif pdf free 57 online?- Who is K.M. Arif and why should I trust his account?- Is Khaki Shadows biased or objective?- How relevant is Khaki Shadows for today's Pakistan?- What are some other books similar to Khaki Shadows? Table 2: Article with HTML formatting Khaki Shadows by K.M. Arif: A Review of Pakistan's Political and Military History




If you are interested in learning about the history of Pakistan, especially the role of the army in its politics and security, you might want to read Khaki Shadows by K.M. Arif. This book is written by a retired general who served in two different martial law regimes and witnessed many of the events and personalities that shaped Pakistan's destiny. In this article, we will review the book and its main themes and arguments, and also provide some information on how to find Khaki Shadows by K.M. Arif pdf free 57 online.




khaki shadows by k m arif pdf free 57



Introduction




Khaki Shadows is a book that covers the political and military history of Pakistan from 1947 to 1997. It is written by K.M. Arif, who was a general in the Pakistan Army and held important positions in the administrations of General Zia-ul-Haq and General Pervez Musharraf. He retired from the army in 1987 and became the chairman of the Pakistan Security and Development Association, a think tank that focuses on national and regional issues.


The book is based on Arif's personal experiences, observations, and insights, as well as his extensive research and analysis of various sources. He claims that his aim is to present an objective and balanced account of Pakistan's history, without any bias or prejudice. He also hopes that his book will help the readers understand the complex and dynamic nature of Pakistan's politics and security, and the challenges and opportunities faced by the country.


The book is divided into 11 chapters, each focusing on a specific theme or period of Pakistan's history. The book also has an epilogue that updates the readers on the developments and events that occurred after 1997, until Arif's death in 2018. The book covers topics such as the creation of Pakistan, the wars with India, the separation of Bangladesh, the martial law regimes, the civil-military relations, the judiciary, the ethnic movements, the foreign relations, and the future prospects of Pakistan.


Down Memory Lane




The first chapter of the book provides a brief overview of how Pakistan emerged as a nation-state in 1947, as a result of a political, legal, and constitutional struggle for independence by the Muslims of the subcontinent. Arif describes the role of Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the founder of Pakistan, and his vision for a democratic and progressive country. He also discusses the challenges and opportunities faced by the new country, such as its geographical division, its economic backwardness, its communal violence, its constitutional crisis, and its external threats.


Arif also highlights how the army played a role in shaping Pakistan's destiny from its earliest years. He traces the origins and evolution of the army as an institution, and its relationship with the civilian governments. He argues that the army was initially loyal and subservient to the political leadership, but gradually became more assertive and influential due to various factors such as its professionalism, its participation in wars, its involvement in development projects, its perception of threats, and its dissatisfaction with civilian performance.


Follies in War




The second chapter of the book deals with how Pakistan engaged in wars with India in 1948, 1965, and 1971. Arif analyzes the causes and consequences of these wars, and how they affected Pakistan's politics and security. He also evaluates how the army performed and what were its mistakes in these wars.


Arif argues that Pakistan's first war with India over Kashmir in 1948 was a result of a lack of political foresight and military preparedness. He claims that Pakistan could have secured Kashmir if it had acted swiftly and decisively before India intervened. He also criticizes the role of Britain and the United Nations in prolonging and complicating the conflict.


Arif contends that Pakistan's second war with India in 1965 was a result of a miscalculation and misadventure by President Ayub Khan and his foreign minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto. He asserts that Pakistan initiated an operation to infiltrate Kashmir without proper planning and coordination, which provoked a full-scale war with India. He also blames the role of China and the United States in creating false hopes and expectations for Pakistan.


Arif maintains that Pakistan's third war with India in 1971 was a result of a political blunder and military disaster by President Yahya Khan and his generals. He states that Pakistan failed to accommodate the demands of its eastern wing for autonomy and democracy, which led to a civil war and an intervention by India. He also accuses Debacle at Dhaka




The third chapter of the book deals with how Pakistan lost its eastern wing in 1971, which became Bangladesh. Arif examines the political, economic, and social factors that led to the separation of Bangladesh, and how the army failed to prevent or resolve the crisis. He also assesses the impact and implications of this loss for Pakistan's identity and security.


Arif argues that Pakistan's eastern wing was neglected and exploited by the central government and the western wing, which created a sense of alienation and resentment among the Bengalis. He claims that Pakistan's political system was dominated by the feudal and bureaucratic elites, who denied the Bengalis their fair share of representation and resources. He also points out that Pakistan's cultural and religious policies were insensitive and oppressive to the Bengalis, who had a distinct linguistic and ethnic identity.


Arif contends that Pakistan's army was ill-equipped and ill-prepared to deal with the situation in East Pakistan, which erupted into a violent uprising in 1971. He asserts that the army resorted to brutal and indiscriminate repression, which alienated and antagonized the Bengalis further. He also admits that the army was outnumbered and outmatched by the Indian forces, which intervened to support the Bengali rebels. He also acknowledges that the army surrendered without putting up a fight, which tarnished its image and morale.


The Military Under Zia




The fourth chapter of the book deals with how General Zia-ul-Haq came to power in 1977, after overthrowing Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto in a coup. Arif analyzes Zia's policies and objectives, and how he transformed Pakistan's society, economy, and foreign relations. He also evaluates Zia's legacy and impact on Pakistan's politics and security.


Arif argues that Zia's main aim was to consolidate his power and legitimacy, which he did by using various tactics such as holding referendums, manipulating elections, co-opting politicians, suppressing opposition, and exploiting religion. He claims that Zia introduced a series of Islamization measures, such as enforcing Sharia laws, establishing Islamic courts, promoting Islamic education, and supporting Islamic groups. He also states that Zia pursued a pro-Western and anti-Soviet foreign policy, which involved supporting the Afghan mujahideen against the Soviet invasion, developing nuclear weapons capability, and joining the US-led alliances.


Arif contends that Zia's policies had mixed results and consequences for Pakistan. He asserts that Zia's Islamization policies created social divisions and sectarian violence, eroded civil liberties and human rights, undermined democratic institutions and values, and empowered extremist forces. He also maintains that Zia's foreign policy exposed Pakistan to external pressures and threats, increased its dependence on foreign aid and loans, involved it in regional conflicts and proxy wars, and isolated it from its neighbors.


The Mohajir Qaumi Movement




and a movement in urban Sindh, and how the army dealt with them and what were the implications. Arif argues that the Mohajirs are the Urdu-speaking migrants who came from India after the partition of 1947. He claims that they faced discrimination and marginalization from the Sindhis and other ethnic groups in Sindh, who resented their economic and political dominance. He also points out that they felt betrayed and abandoned by the central government and the army, who failed to protect their rights and interests.


Arif contends that the MQM emerged as a response to the grievances and aspirations of the Mohajirs in the 1980s. He asserts that the MQM mobilized the Mohajirs on the basis of their linguistic and cultural identity, and demanded a fair share of resources and representation in Sindh. He also states that the MQM challenged the status quo and the established parties, such as the Pakistan People's Party (PPP) and the Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam (JUI), which dominated Sindh's politics.


Arif maintains that the army had a complex and contradictory relationship with the MQM. He admits that the army initially supported and patronized the MQM, as a counterweight to the PPP and the JUI, and as a partner in Zia's Islamization agenda. He also acknowledges that the army later confronted and suppressed the MQM, as a threat to its authority and stability, and as a source of violence and chaos. He also recognizes that the army alternated between cooperation and confrontation with the MQM, depending on its political calculations and interests.


Exercise Brass Tacks




The sixth chapter of the book deals with Exercise Brass Tacks, which was a large-scale military exercise conducted by Pakistan in 1986-87 near its border with India. Arif describes what was Exercise Brass Tacks and why was it conducted, how it affected Pakistan's relations with India and the Soviet Union, and how it exposed the rifts within the army and the civil-military relations.


Arif argues that Exercise Brass Tacks was a strategic move by General Zia-ul-Haq to test India's military capabilities and intentions, to demonstrate Pakistan's nuclear deterrence and readiness, to pressure India to resolve the Kashmir dispute, and to divert attention from his domestic problems. He claims that Exercise Brass Tacks was also a personal initiative by General Zia-ul-Haq to assert his control over the army and to enhance his image and popularity.


the Soviet Union, which threatened to intervene in case of a war between Pakistan and India. He also reveals that Exercise Brass Tacks exposed the rifts within the army, between the pro-Zia and anti-Zia factions, and between the professional and political generals. He also discloses that Exercise Brass Tacks strained the civil-military relations, between Zia and Prime Minister Junejo, who disagreed on how to handle the crisis.


The Role of the Judiciary




The seventh chapter of the book deals with the role and function of the judiciary in Pakistan, and how it interacted with the army and the civilian governments. Arif examines how the judiciary upheld or undermined the rule of law and democracy in Pakistan, and how it influenced or was influenced by the political and military forces.


Arif argues that the judiciary in Pakistan has been a weak and subservient institution, which has failed to protect the constitution and the rights of the people. He claims that the judiciary has been manipulated and compromised by the army and the civilian governments, who have used it to legitimize their actions and to suppress their opponents. He also points out that the judiciary has been divided and politicized by its own members, who have aligned themselves with different parties and interests.


Arif contends that the judiciary in Pakistan has also been a resilient and independent institution, which has challenged and resisted the army and the civilian governments. He asserts that the judiciary has been courageous and principled in some cases, where it has defended the constitution and the rights of the people. He also acknowledges that the judiciary has been supported and empowered by some segments of society, such as lawyers, media, civil society, and political parties.


The Lure of Power




The eighth chapter of the book deals with how Benazir Bhutto and Nawaz Sharif came to power in the 1990s, after Zia's death in 1988. Arif analyzes their achievements and failures, and how they clashed with the army and each other. He also evaluates their impact on Pakistan's politics and security.


Arif argues that Benazir Bhutto and Nawaz Sharif were both popular and charismatic leaders, who represented different regions and constituencies in Pakistan. He claims that they both had some successes in restoring democracy, improving economy, strengthening foreign relations, and promoting social welfare. He also states that they both faced some challenges in dealing with corruption, violence, extremism, separatism, and regionalism.


the army and each other, which resulted in their dismissals and exiles. He also argues that they both undermined the stability and credibility of Pakistan's democracy and security.


Glimpses - Foreign Relations




The ninth chapter of the book deals with how Pakistan managed its foreign relations with key countries and regions, such as the United States, China, India, Afghanistan, Iran, Saudi Arabia, and the Muslim world. Arif examines the opportunities and challenges faced by Pakistan in its external affairs, and how the army influenced or shaped Pakistan's foreign policy.


Arif argues that Pakistan's foreign relations have been driven by its national interests and security concerns, as well as by its historical and cultural ties. He claims that Pakistan has pursued a pragmatic and flexible foreign policy, which has enabled it to balance its relations with different powers and partners. He also points out that Pakistan has played an active and constructive role in regional and international issues, such as the Cold War, the Afghan War, the Kashmir dispute, the nuclear proliferation, and the war on terror.


Arif contends that Pakistan's foreign relations have also been affected by its domestic politics and military interventions, as well as by its external pressures and threats. He asserts that Pakistan has faced a complex and dynamic foreign policy environment, which has posed many dilemmas and risks for its decision-makers. He also acknowledges that Pakistan has made some mistakes and miscalculations in its foreign relations, which have cost it dearly in terms of its reputation and resources.


Adieu




The tenth chapter of the book deals with how K.M. Arif retired from the army in 1987, after serving as the vice chief of army staff under General Zia-ul-Haq. Arif describes his reflections and regrets on his career and service, and how he viewed Pakistan's future prospects and challenges.


Arif argues that he retired from the army with a sense of pride and satisfaction, as he had served his country with honesty and dedication. He claims that he had contributed to Pakistan's security and development, as well as to its professionalization and modernization of the army. He also states that he had enjoyed his work and life in the army, as he had made many friends and memories.


Arif contends that he also retired from the army with a sense of concern and disappointment, as he had witnessed many problems and crises in Pakistan. He admits that he had been involved in some controversial and questionable actions, such as the martial law regimes, the wars with India, the separation of Bangladesh, and the exercise brass tacks. He also regrets that he had not been able to prevent or resolve some of these issues.


Epilogue




until Arif's death in 2018. Arif updates the readers on the major developments and events that affected Pakistan's politics and security, and how they reflected or contradicted his analysis and predictions in the book. He also evaluates his own legacy and impact as a writer and a thinker.


Arif argues that Pakistan witnessed many changes and challenges in the 21st century, such as the rise and fall of General Pervez Musharraf, the return and assassination of Benazir Bhutto, the emergence and consolidation of democracy, the escalation and de-escalation of tensions with India, the involvement and withdrawal of the US-led forces in Afghanistan, the spread and containment of terrorism and extremism, the development and recognition of nuclear weapons capability, the growth and stagnation of economy, and the emergence and response of COVID-19 pandemic.


Arif contends that Pakistan also experienced some continuity and res


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